Радио дизайн и технологии. РЧ оборудование, его разработка, тестирование. схемотехника. RF Design

Генераторы. ГУН (VCO), опорные

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Для формирования опорных частот, необходимых для обработки сигналов в РЧ блоке, обычно используются генераторы, управляемые напряжением ГУН (Voltage Controlled Oscillator, VCO), называемые зачастую гетеродинами (Local Oscillator, LO). Как правило, частоты гетеродинов, независимо от того, изменяются они в процессе функционирования устройства или нет, стабилизируются с помощью синтезаторов частот. Опорные сигналы, необходимые для функционирования РЧ блока, имеют обычно синусоидальную или прямоугольную форму.


Кварцевые генераторы, резонаторы

Подборка Интернет-источников по кварцевым генераторам, резонаторам




  • Ceramic resonators Ceramic resonator principles, Ceramic resonator applications, pdf file

Crystal design notes «Series» resonant crystals, «Parallel» resonant crystals, Load Capacitance, Frequency Tolerance, Frequency Stability, Quality Factor (Q), Calculation of Load Capacitance, Trim Sensitivity, Impedance/Reactance Curve, Pullability, pdf file

Crystal oscillator application note Clock regenerator with crystal-controlled phase-locked loop VCO (NE564), pdf file

Crystal oscillator An oscillator is basically an amplifier and a frequency selective feedback network, pdf file

Crystal oscillator How does a crystal oscillator work, pdf file

Crystal oscillator basics Crystal Oscillator Basics and Crystal Selection for rfPICTM and PICmicro® Devices, pdf file

Crystal oscillator circuit design with digital invertor Reactance Vs Frequency plot of a crystal, Crystal Oscillator Circuit Design, pdf file

Crystal oscillator circuits series resonant crystal oscillator, parallel resonant crystal oscillator

Crystal oscillator information XO, TCXO, OCXO, VCXO, XO non-compensated crystal oscillators, TCXO temperature compensated crystal oscillators, OCXO oven controlled crystal oscillators, VCXO voltage controlled crystal oscillators

Crystal oscillators introduction to fundamental crystal oscillators 1 — 21 MHz, series resonant circuit, parallel resonant circuit, introduction to overtone crystal circuits, third overtone oscillator circuit, fifth overtone oscillator circuit

Crystal oscillators crystal oscillators are oscillators where the primary frequency determining element is a quartz crystal. Because of the inherent characteristics of the quartz crystal the crystal oscillator may be held to extreme accuracy of frequency stability

Crystal oscillators series resonant crystal oscillator, parallel resonant crystal oscillator, pdf file

Crystal oscillators A Study of the Crystal Oscillator for CMOS-COPSTM, pdf file

Crystal oscillators A Study of the Crystal Oscillator for CMOS-COPSTM, pdf file

Crystal oscillators pdf file

Crystal oscillators pdf file

Crystal oscillators pdf file

Crystal oscillators quartz crystal units serve as the controlling element of oscillator circuits by conversion of mechanical vibrations to electrical current at a specific frequency. This is accomplished by means of the «Piezoelectric» effect, Tuning forks the 32.768kHz watch crystal

Crystal oscillator topics pdf file

Crystal Resonator Terminology Crystal Resonator Terminology, pdf file

Crystal technology Application Notes, Bluetooth with Crystal Resonators, Crystal Terminology, Environmental Conditions for Frequency Components, Flow Soldering for Ceramic Packages, How to specify a Quartz Crystal, RoHS Compatible Products, Millimetre Wave Applications — Frequency Sources, Piezoelectric Frequency Control, Simulation of Crystals & Resonators, Watch Crystal Soldering

Crystal theory crystal theory, Specifying Crystals For Use In VCXOs And TCXOs For Wireless Designs, Understanding Basic Terms in Crystal Oscillator Specifications, A Key to Proper Frequency Control in Portable Equipment.

Crystal theory of operation Crystal Oscillator theory of operation pdf file


Digital Crystal Oscillators

HCMOS Crystal Oscillators With the advent of high speed HCMOS circuits, it is possible to build systems with clock rates of greater than 30 MHz. The familiar gate oscillator circuits used at low frequencies work well at higher frequencies and either L–C or crystal resonators maybe used depending on the stability required. Above 20 MHz, it becomes expensive to fabricate fundamental mode crystals, so overtone modes are used, pdf file

Fundamentals of quartz oscillators Crystal Fundamentals, Piezoelectricity, Crystal Structure, Crystal Cuts, Vibration Modes, Frequency Determination, Crystal Mounting, Electrical Equivalent, Typical Performance of Oscillator Compensation Techniques, Influences on Crystal Oscillator Frequency, pdf file

Harmonic oscillator using a 26 MHz crystal

Specifying quartz crystals pdf file

Microcontroller Clock—Crystal, Resonator, RC Oscillator, or Silicon Oscillator? Crystals, ceramic resonators, RC (resistor, capacitor) oscillators, and silicon oscillators are four types of clock sources for use with a microcontroller, …

Oscillator design guide for ST microcontrollers Impedance representation in the frequency domain, pdf file

Oscillators for microcontrollers How Feedback Oscillators Work, Positive Reactance Oscillator, Crystal Parameters, Quartz Crystal: Symbol and Equivalent Circuit, Equivalent Series Resistance, Frequency Tolerance, pdf file

Oscillators on 8-bit microcontrollers pdf file

Pierce Crystal Oscillator Design Pierce Crystal Oscillator Design

Quartz Crystal Resonators Applications and Requirements, Quartz Crystal Oscillators, Quartz Crystal Resonators, Oscillator Stability, Quartz Material Properties, Atomic Frequency Standards, Oscillator Comparison and Specification, Time and Timekeeping, Related Devices and Applications, pdf file

Quartz frequency standards fundamentals of quartz oscillators, crystal resonators and oscillators, oscillator types, and the characteristics and limitations of temperature-compensated crystal oscillators (TCXO) and oven-controlled crystal oscillators (OCXO)

Quartz resonator & oscillator tutorial ppt file

Quartz Resonator & Oscillator Tutorial ppt file

Quartz Resonator & Oscillator Tutorial ppt file

Quartz Resonator & Oscillator Tutorial


Tuning and control of an on chip piezoelectric resonator pdf file

  • Understanding Quartz Crystals The quartz crystal or resonator operates due to the piezoelectric effect. The piezoelectric effect of quartz allows it to produce an electrical charge on its surface when the same surface(s) are distorted or subjected to pressure. pdf file

Генераторы, управляемые напряжением (ГУН) — основы

Генераторы, управляемые напряжением (ГУН) — Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)

  • Генераторы, управляемые напряжением. Общий раздел
  • Основные сведения о генераторах, управляемых напряжением (ГУН). Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
  • Основные параметры и характеристики генераторов, управляемых напряжением (ГУН)
  • Перекрытие требуемого диапазона перестройки ГУН (Tuning Range). Широкополосные ГУН
  • ГУН. Интернет-источники

    Подборка Интернет-источников по генераторам, управляемым напряжением ГУН (VCO)



    622.08 MHz Reference. Clock Design pdf file

    AM/FM IF stereo system IC BA1451F, The BA1451F is a tuner system IC for electronic tuning for AM radios, FM IF, and MPX. It has been developed for HiFi component applications, pdf file

    Coaxial Resonators for VCO Applications Coaxial Resonator & Transmission Line Basics, pdf file

    Colpitts VCO for Wideband (0.95–2.15 GHz) Set-Top TV Tuner Applications pdf file

    Differential VCO Design for GSM Handset Applications The differential pair of bipolar transistors is the common building block in modern RF integrated circuits. An advantage of this architecture is its high loop gain making it popular for differential Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) designs in RFICs, pdf file

    Differential VCO Design for GSM Handset Applications pdf file

    Frequency synthesis Frequency synthesis, Input Reference Frequency And On-Chip Crystal Oscillator, VCO frequency, VCO frequency multiplier, Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator Applications, pdf file

    ICL8038 The ICL8038 waveform generator is a monolithic integrated circuit capable of producing high accuracy sine, square, triangular, sawtooth and pulse waveforms with a minimum of external components. The frequency (or repetition rate) can be selected externally from 0.001Hz to more than 300kHz using either resistors or capacitors, and frequency modulation and sweeping can be accomplished with an external voltage, pdf file

    Low Cost 1.5 to 2.2GHz Voltage Controlled Oscillator VCO circuit, varicap, pdf file

    Low Phase Noise VCO Design for PCS Handset Applications This application note describes the design and performance of a VCO centered at 1750 MHz for a PCS handset that uses the SMV1763-079 varactor diode, pdf file

    MC14046B The MC14046B phase locked loop contains two phase comparators, a voltage–controlled oscillator (VCO), source follower, and zener diode, pdf file

    NE564 circuit description of the NE564, pdf file

    PLL Synthesizers/VCOs — Application Notes

    Tuning VFOs With A PN-Junction

    Trimless IF VCO This application note explores the design fundamentals needed to implement a trimless, fixed-frequency, IF voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) and points out the challenges in guaranteeing proper circuit operation, pdf file

    Using a VCXO (Voltage-Controlled Crystal Oscillator) as a Clock (CLK) Generator A «VCXO» (Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator) is an oscillator whose frequency is determined by a crystal, but can be adjusted by a small amount by changing a control voltage. VCXO clock (CLK) generators have been used in various applications, such as digital TV, digital audio, ADSL, and STB, …

    VCO A Balanced Wideband VCO for Set-Top TV Tuner Applications, pdf file

    VCO Voltage-controlled Oscillators, V-f, and f-V conversion, pdf file

    VCO Design of voltage controlled oscillator, pdf file

    VCO pdf file

    VCO à circuit intégré XR2206 XR2206, en Français

    VCO design application notes

    VCO design Voltage Controlled Oscillator application note, This application note explores the design fundamentals needed to implement a trimless, fixed-frequency, IF voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) and points out the challenges in guaranteeing proper circuit operation

    VCO design pdf file

    VCO Design for WLAN Applications in the 2.4–2.5 GHz ISM Band A VCO Design for WLAN Applications in the 2.4–2.5 GHz ISM Band, pdf file

    VCO Phase noise The term phase noise is widely used for describing short term random frequency fluctuations of a signal. Frequency stability is a measure of the degree to which an oscillator maintains the same value of frequency over a given time, pdf file

    VCO Phase noise VCO Design and Schematics

    VCO fundamentals the basics of VCO design, Understanding VCO Concepts, pdf file

    VCO Tank Design for the MAX2310 This application note presents various voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) designs for popular IF frequencies of 85MHz, 190MHz, and 210MHz, pdf file

    VCO-Voltage Controlled Oscillator VCO: Voltage Controlled Oscillator

    VCXO’s Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillators VCXO’s Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillators, A VCXO (voltage controlled crystal oscillator) is a crystal oscillator which includes a varactor diode and associated circuitry allowing the frequency to be changed by application of a voltage across that diode, …

    Voltage Controlled Oscillator Amplifier Voltage Controlled Oscillator Amplifier, a voltage controlled oscillator amplifier that requires an external parallel tank circuit consisting of the inductor (L) and capacitor (C). A varactor diode may be incorporated into the tank circuit to provide a voltage variable input for the oscillator (VCO), pdf file

    Voltage controlled oscillators varicap, VCO

    Voltage controlled oscillator oscillation circuit using Colpitts LC oscillation circuit, varicap

    W-CDMA 2.3 GHz VCO using BFR360F and BBY58-02V This application note describes the design of a voltage controlled oscillator, pdf file

    XR-2206 exar XR2206, The XR-2206 is a monolithic function generator integrated circuit capable of producing high quality sine, square, triangle, ramp, and pulse waveforms of high-stability and accuracy. The output waveforms can be both amplitude and frequency modulated by an external voltage, pdf file